Complete Blood Count Explained: A Convenient Table With Explanations And A Brief Overview Of The Main Features
Clinical blood tests are the key diagnostic method that allows determining the functionality of the blood-forming organs depending on the influence of physiological and pathological factors.
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- assessing the general condition of the body;
- revealing a range of diseases (blood diseases, inflammatory and purulent-septic conditions, specific immune processes);
- carrying out a differential diagnosis;
- assessing the course and activity of an acute process;
- monitoring and adjusting the treatment;
- predicting the development of a disease.
For clinical analysis, blood sampling is performed in the morning, on an empty stomach on a patient in a sitting position.
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It is important to consider that hematological parameters are influenced by two types of factors:
- physiological - age, sex, nutrition, weight, physical and mental exertions, fluctuations in atmospheric pressure and temperature;
- pathological - injuries, inflammatory processes, bleeding, neoplasm.
Table of standards
We prepared these tables so that you can easily understand the results of your blood test. These tables include normal values for each of the main features and possible factors for their decrease or increase.
Note: the causes of these deviations may be physiological (they are considered normal and usually not alarming) and pathological, which require attention, monitoring and consultation with specialized doctors. The former is written in green, the latter in red.
* ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulates the production of hormones by the adrenal glands.
The meaning of each feature
Now, let's see what each feature means and what its functions are.
1. Hemoglobin (Hb)
- saturates tissues with oxygen;
- eliminates CO2;
- adjusts the acid-base balance.
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2. Erythrocytes (Er) (RBC) or blood cells determining the blood type and rhesus factor
- regulate the oxygen and CO2 exchange with hemoglobin;
- adjust the acid-base balance;
- are responsible for blood clotting.
3. Leukocytes (WBC)
- They are white blood cells formed in the bone marrow, which:
- protect the body from germs and foreign substances;
- participate in immune processes;
- detox the organism;
- stimulate regenerative processes and promote faster healing of wounds;
- synthesize antibodies;
- stimulate the intermediary metabolism;
- take part in allergic reactions.
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There are 2 types of lymphocytes, each performing its functions.
- B lymphocytes contribute to the release of immunoglobulin, which fights against foreign substances.
- T lymphocytes determine the parameters of cellular immunity.
- absorb infectious agents;
- execute the immune response;
- interact with the blood clotting system;
- contribute to the synthesis of biologically active substances.
- support microcirculatory processes;
- reduce blood flow in a damaged portion of a vessel by stimulating the spasm;
- take part in blood clotting;
- form platelet clots in damaged vessels;
- regulate local inflammatory reactions;
- contribute to the immune system development.
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7. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
This feature determines the intensity of development of different inflammatory processes since they often cause faster erythrocyte sedimentation in comparison with the norm. Often, a change in this value can also reveal pathological conditions.
Leukocytes - types and functions
Leukocytes deserve special attention. There are 4 types of white blood cells each having different functions. We put the normal values and reasons for deviations in a table for your convenience.
Neutrophils absorb infectious agents and perform antibacterial, anti-candida, antiviral and detoxing functions.
Eosinophils participate in various allergic reactions, have an anti-inflammatory effect, are cytotoxically active against a wide range of parasites, and also absorb relatively small foreign particles and cells.
Basophils regulate the synthesis of histamine and take part in allergic reactions and inflammatory processes.
Features checked by modern analyzers
We discussed the main features of a complete blood cell count offered by most medical laboratories. Private research centers offer a more detailed analysis that can include the following values.
- Hematocrit (Hct). The values are usually evaluated in conjunction with the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin. A significant decrease in all three features indicates anemia, while an increase indicates a heart disease or polycythemia. The norm for men is 38.8-50.0%, for women, it is 34.9-44.5%.
- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) indicates the density of hemoglobin molecules in cells.
- Platelet count. A quantitative analysis of platelets provides information about the general state of the organism. The norm is 150-450 million per liter for an adult.
- Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a value that determines the average size of platelets.
- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin in the average blood cell. The norm is from 27 to 32 picograms for an adult.
- Red cell distribution width (RDW) allows determining the variability of red cells in size. The normal range is from 11 to 15.
- Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a calculated value derived from the hematocrit and erythrocytes count. The normal range is from 80-100 femtoliters.
Blood test results must be understandable not only to the treating physician but to the patient as well. We hope that this information will help you orient faster in key features and take better care of your health!
This article is solely for informational purposes. Do not self-diagnose or self-medicate, and in all cases consult a certified healthcare professional before using any information presented in the article. The editorial board does not guarantee any results and does not bear any responsibility for any harm that may result from using the information provided in the article.